By: Dr. Nosheen Ali, Bureau Chief-ICN Madhya Pradesh
BHOPAL: Diabetes mellitus is known as “SIPHONING OFF SWEET WATER. It means excess sugar is found in blood as well as urine.
D-Decrease Anabolism cause increase thirst (polydipsia)
I-insulin secretion reduced, and increases Glucose Production
A-Always Hungry, thirsty.
B-Blurry Vision (Blood sugar (Glucose) high)
E- Eating disorder first sign.
T-Tingling and Numbness in Hands & Feet’s
S-Sudden weight Loss
In the case of diabetes, there are two kinds of complications. The first kind happens quickly and can be dealt with quickly. This kind is called an acute complication. The other kind is caused by the blood glucose being too high for many years, and is called a chronic complication or long-term complication.
Excess blood glucose is called ‘hyperglycaemia’. If very high, it can cause acute complications.
In type 1 diabetics, one of these complications is diabetic ketoacidosis which is a medical emergency and can often be detected by a fruity smell on the breath. Another acute complication, more common in type 2 diabetics, is non-ketosis hyperosmolar coma which is also very dangerous.
Too low blood glucose is called hypoglycaemia. It can also cause acute complications. If too low, diabetics can have many symptoms such as sweating, trembling, anger (or feeling passive), and possibly even passing out. Diabetics with hypoglycaemia may be confused or even unconscious. They may appear to have drunk too much alcohol. Severe hypoglycaemia is very dangerous and can cause death. The best treatment of hypoglycaemia is avoiding it. If it happens, eating food containing glucose (for example, table sugar) usually improves the condition quickly. Sometimes it is treated by giving an injection of a medicine called ‘glucagon’.
Glucagon is a hormone made by the pancreas. It has the opposite effect of insulin. Hypoglycaemia is usually caused by too much diabetic medication, insufficient food, too much exercise, or a combination of these.Chronic complications are mostly caused by hyperglycaemia (but not high enough to always cause acute complications). It causes damage to blood vessels and nerves. Damage to blood vessels can eventually cause strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, blindness, slow healing of skin breaks – with added possibility of infection – and even amputations from poor circulation (decreased blood flow, usually to the feet and toes). Damage caused by Diabetics
Skin infections and other skin disorders common in people with diabetes
Keep your risk of glaucoma, cataracts and other eye problems low with regular checkups
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy (new-ROP-uh-thee). Cardiovascular disease. Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries .
Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
Kidney damage (nephropathy).
The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Eye damage (retinopathy).
Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can develop serious infections, which often heal poorly. These infections may ultimately require toe, foot or leg amputation.
Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be.
Depression symptoms are common in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Depression can affect diabetes management.Diabetes is usually treated with a change in diet, exercise, and prescription medications to control blood sugar. Symptoms can include
Diabetes diet chart:
Morning at 6:AM teaspoon fenugreek (methi) powder + water.
Morning at 7:AM 1 cup sugar free tea + 1-2 mary biscuits.
Morning at 8.30:AM 1 plate upma or oatmeal + half bowl sprouted grains + 100ml cream-free milk without sugar
Morning at 10.30:AM 1 small fruit or 1 cup thin and sugar free buttermilk or lemon water
Lunch at 1:PM– 2 Roti of mixed flour, 1 bowl rice, 1 bowl pulse, 1 bowl yogurt, half cup soybean or cheese vegetable, half bowl green vegetable, one plate salad
4 pm: 1 cup tea without sugar + 1-2 less sugar biscuits or toast
6 pm: 1 cup soup
8.30 pm: 2 roti of mixed flour, 1 bowl rice, 1 bowl pulse, half bowl green vegetable, one plate salad
10.30 pm: take 1 cup cream free milk without sugar.
When you feel hungry intake raw vegetables, salad, black tea, soups, thin buttermilk, lemon water.
Avoid it: molasses, sugar, honey, sweets, dry fruits. Foods you must avoid!
Sugar: sucrose, a table sugar, provides nothing but calories and carbohydrates. Also, need calcium to digest sucrose. Insufficient sucrose in take lead to calcium off the bones. Substitute sucrose with natural sugar, like honey, jaggery (gur), etc.
Fat: excessive fat intake is definitely not a good habit. Try and exclude fried items . But, remember, must have a small quantity of oil to absorb fat-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin E.
For non-vegetarians: Try and stop the intake of red meat completely. Try to go in for a vegetarian diet. eat lean fish two to three times a week.
Whole milk and products: Try to switch to low fat milk and its products like yogurt (curd). Replace high fat cheese with low fat cottage cheese.
Tea and coffee: Do not have than two cups of the conventional tea or decaffeinated coffee every day. Try to switch to herbal teas.
White flour and its products: Replace these with whole grains, wholewheat or soya breads and unpolished rice.
Foods with a high glycaemia index: Avoid white rice, potatoes, carrots, breads andbanana — they increase the blood-sugar levels.
Advice for diabetes patient:
35-40 minute faster walk every day.
Diabetic person should eat food between times intervals like take breakfast in morning, lunch, some snakes and dinner.
Avoid oily food.
Intake more fibre foods in meals. It increases glucose level gradually in blood and keeps control.
Do not take fast and also don t go much party.
Diabetic person should eat food slowly.
Management of Diabetes-
B- Blood Sugar Monitoring
E- Enthusiasm towards life
T- Time Management
S- Stress free life and sleep well